GASTRONOMIC THESAURUS (part 3)
Quirky habits and all sorts of oddities are the flip side of the traditional view of food, anchored in the content aspect of the units of the gastronomic thesaurus. One of the oldest and most natural pleasures – the pleasure derived from food, as noted by psychologists, covers 70% of all pleasures experienced by people. The Spaniards, unlike the English, eat with undisguised pleasure, considering any meal as one of the most enjoyable ceremonies of everyday life. The commitment of Spaniards to the culture of food is associated with a well-structured knowledge of what fits in the phrase “good to eat”, with the time of eating passes into the rank of absolute value, and lunch hours are considered sacred. The main meal of the day comida gives the Spaniards a lot of fun and takes a lot of time.
One of the most common culinary traditions in Spain is tapas. So generally called a variety of snacks that are served in taverns to wine and beer. Tapas are not limited to clear time intervals, as this ritual has a special place in the gastronomy and traditions of Spain. In the past, the tapas consisted of a few olives or almonds, slices of cheese, sausage and ham as a free Supplement to a glass of sherry. Currently, the “tapas” category includes any products and dishes served in small portions. Among them may be caracoles, camaro-nes, bocadillos, tortilla, morcilla, jamdn serrano, patatas bravas, calamares fritos, sardinas, and many others. the Phrase picar algo “bites” – there are at the bar or at a small table it is perfectly suited to the concept of tapas. Having become part of the Spanish way of life, tapas often replaces a normal dinner.
The pragmatic basis of thesaurus semantics is that normal and nutritious food is not limited to a limited number of products. What excites the appetite of one person or group of people leaves others indifferent. Descriptions of unique and inimitable dishes represent unique combinations of food ingredients. Culinary guides and extraordinary menus, as a rule, need accompanying explanations and semantic interpretations, which, in turn, are doomed to never end. Such guidebooks and menus take into account the fact that people are fickle, and their desires of yesterday do not coincide with today’s. The authors of such texts refer to the fact of abundance of tastes and countless tastes. However, the variety in excess of reasonable doses turns monotonous, and all the extraordinary names of dishes with accompanying descriptions merge into one unusual name. The fact is that the natural laws of satisfying hunger and social norms of eating do not imply disorder and whimsicality. Infinite variety is meant to curb moral norms. They are in the Spanish-speaking society erect in the absolute quality of the original products. Norms are established by public agreement and conventions. The through articulation of ethical, emotional, sensory-gustatory, aesthetic and rationalistic norms determines the national and cultural specificity of people’s food preferences [Pisanova, 1997].
In conclusion, we propose a number of provisions formulated by us that contribute to the understanding of the laws of storage of ideas about food and traditions of its consumption in the form of value values in their broad, philosophical understanding.
Food is a meaningful phenomenon that organizes and changes the world according to its main purpose – to satisfy the most important human needs for food.
The extraordinary complexity of the semantic field “food” in language in General and Spanish in particular emphasizes the role of the unity of the external and internal world in cognition. The most important thesis that food as
the basic human need has multiple meanings and is a structure similar to other communication systems, explains the existence of the alimentary code as a special sublanguage that can serve the purposes of transmitting social information in the text.
“Food” is a complex and rich concept that reflects not only the structure of the alimentary code, but also the structure of the culinary world as a social construct with its individual, practical, verbal, mental, cultural and universal experience. In addition, this special content is able to satisfy other human needs indirectly related to the process of absorption of food – taste, ethical, aesthetic, emotional and a range of practical needs.
“Food” as a practical beginning in the Spanish-language value picture of the world is a system-forming concept that appeals to the whole range of basic values: first of all, sensory-taste, psychological, aesthetic, ethical and rationalistic.
Heuristic, axiological and mi-reporoduce the role of ideas about food in the Hispanic world picture determines its pragmatic significance, communicative and social value Laden-ness, especially for native Spanish speakers recorded in his picture of the world a particular attitude towards it. The concept of “food” is able to act as a basis for evaluation, to set ways of assessing what is happening and to Express an axiological attitude to it, the purpose of which is cultural understanding.
The cultural concept of “food” is heterogeneous. Initially describing the world of food, it became the basis for knowledge, understanding, describing not only the world of food, but also the world of a more complex, social, combining individual, spiritual, intellectual and interpersonal experience.
The culinary culture of Spain with its traditional, ritual, nature of the relationship to food and related value categories is designed to resist the temptation of chaos and disorderly manners in the consumption of food. Moreover, tradition-
the norms of cooking adopted by the national and cultural community stimulate a careful attitude to the quality of the raw products, which is especially valued in Spain. The updated recipes of traditional dishes in a certain sense “rediscover” the original quality of food ingredients and thus emphasize the enduring value properties of fruits, vegetables, fresh meat, fish, spices, etc. The dish as a combination of ingredients also acquires a socialized essence, since the communicative-pragmatic (intentional) basis of the description of its preparation is subordination to certain taste and social requirements.
The cognitive and evaluative goals of culinary recipes are built on a social basis primarily because the culinary act, closely related to the speech act, is mirror interpersonal and needs a performer and the presence of an object – real, imaginary or symbolic. Without consumers of culinary masterpieces, even imaginary ones, there is no high culinary art.
It is very relevant to study the universal and culturally specific components of the pragmatic meanings of units of the culinary dictionary, as well as the study of the so-called gastronomic metaphors, idioms and paroemias, which are the guardians of the system of value representations of the Spaniards about the world.
The practical value of such studies, in our view, lies in the fact that the empirical material can be considered not as an isolated object “in itself”, and to contact relevant issues and pragmatic meanings, in particular the axiological significance of traditional foods in Spanish and Hispanic cultures, especially the national food preferences, reflected in the mismatch of the axiological component of the homonymous lexical units in journalistic and fiction texts.