GASTRONOMIC THESAURUS (part 1)
The trivial thesis held by the British is that we ” eat to live, not live to eat.” At the same time, as K. Fox observes, the enjoyment and admiration of the magnificent cuisine of the French does not prevent the British from treating with contempt their “shameless love of food.” Among the English it is not customary to advertise their love of food and openly admit that food gives pleasure. About food as sensual-
it is customary to speak of pleasure in a light-hearted, jocular tone. Apparently, this is why poetic and erotic language in relation to food and names of dishes in the English community is not welcome. This is evidenced by the common humorous term “gastroperiodynia”, when used in respect of colorfully illustrated cooking magazines and cookbooks, with detailed descriptions of mouth-watering dishes, as well as in relation to enthusiastic discussions about food.
According to P. Weil and A. Genis, authors of the book “Russian cuisine in exile”, Spanish cuisine is characterized by roughness, peculiar to Nations that realized cooking as a high art late and cared only about the quality of the original ingredients. However, the replenishment of the Spanish culinary dictionary contributed by the ancient Romans, cultivating in this area the olives (olivas, aceitunas) and grapes (uvas), the Arabs, who left after his semitecolo rule the almond (almendra), citrus (naranjas, limones, toronjos), artichokes (alcachofa), capers (alcaparras), spices (azafran, nuez moscada), herbs (albahaca, apio, peppermint, tomillo, romero, perejil), sweets (dulce de almibar, dulce seco, almendrado, almibar, azucar, pan de higos, pasa de uva), sugary drinks (jarabe, naranjada), and the Spanish conquistadors, which five hundred years ago brought from America, tomatoes (tomates), bitter and sweet peppers (nyora, cayena pimienta, pimienta dulce, pimiento rojo, pimiento verde), potatoes (papa, patata), vanilla (vanilla), chocolate (chocolate), bananas (bananas, platanos), peanut (cacahuete), coconut (nuez de coco), guava (guayaba), papaya (papaya), etc.
Among the meat dishes in Spain, preference is given to pork (carne de cerdo), pork products and pork dishes (buti-farra, butifarra negra, cachelada, callos, chi-charrones, chuleta de cerdo, costillas de cerdo, cochinillo, ng, longaniza, magro, manos de cerdo, manteca de cerdo, morcilla, orejas de cer-do, embutidos, fuet, tocino entreverado, jamon, queso de cerdo, unto), mutton (carnero, lecha-zo, gallinajas), chicken meat (carne de pollo/gallina, menudillos, pata de pollo, pollo de pechugo)
and to a lesser extent, beef (carne de va-ca chuleta de buey). As you can see, despite the long rule of the Muslim Arabs, the meat favorite of Spain is pork (cerdo), as well as dishes and products from pork. Veal (ternera) is considered as something exquisite, as the meat of dairy calves Spaniards almost do not eat, but in the restaurant menu there is a veal fillet (filete de ternera) – the thinnest piece of tender meat, fried in olive oil. Lamb chops (chuletas de cordero) are considered a ubiquitous dish, the preparation of which, as a rule, does not involve the use of herbs.
Food and dish names, in addition to the list of ingredients, include an “invisible class label”. For example, some foods are associated with the lower middle class, the lower middle class, the upper middle class, etc.Reference to social status is included in the meaningful definition of what people eat and where they do it, how they call what they eat, and how they talk about it. For example, the name of the famous Spanish ham acquired iconic features of class semiotics. Iberian ham (jamdn serrano) – a favorite food of the educated upper middle class, not only in Spain but also in several other European countries. The Spaniards treat the well-known variety of dry-cured ham as expensive caviar. The process of maturation of such ham lasts from one to three years. In the past, the best place for ripening ham were the spurs of the mountains – Sierra, where the name serrano comes from. The most exquisite types of extremely expensive ham are made from the meat of black Iberian pigs and aged to a marbled black and red color, and its taste is equated to a true delight. Cut into thin slices, jamon serrano is served as a snack, and in small quantities is added as a seasoning in a variety of dishes-soups, salads, omelettes and pasta. Special term rehogado con jamdn “stewing with ham” is the traditional technique of frying slices of ham in olive oil with vegetables. Delicate taste and usefulness jamdn serrano equal to
high-quality properties of the best varieties of olive oil (ACEA de O1^a), while the conventional wisdom was that both products help to reduce cholesterol.
Cheaper smoked ham is kept for at least a year. Its aesthetic and taste properties consist in the fact that it looks pink, delicate and slightly sweet taste. Value properties AMDP depend on the breed of pigs, their diet and breeding. Among the high-quality meat products stands out 1oto embuchado “LOMO embuchado” – the most delicate part of pork tenderloin, which is manually rubbed with white wine and spices, kept for eight days, Packed in a natural shell and dried for three to nine months. Sophisticated cooking technology provides such a ham great taste.
The main meaningful class separator of food items became the norms of healthy nutrition. The social status of people determines what they do not eat. Extreme sensitivity to food is often ironically presented in modern novels as a sign of refinement, sophistication, aristocratic nature in contrast to the vulgar commoners who do not make high demands on food and serving rules.
The tradition of making Spanish sausages is directly related to the December holiday La Matanza “Slaughter of pigs”. The name of such a holiday as a joyful event is possible in Spain because a peculiar attitude to life and death is cultivated here. It was due to the harsh and cruel mores that were welcomed in the era of the struggle against the Arab conquerors, which contributed to the formation of an inflexible character. A holiday La Matanza draws the following picture of the “happy events”: hung on the oak tree carcasses, meat, blood, the bow and the hands of women who are using 1A maquma, i.e. similar to a large syringe device, the resulting stuffing is filled with cleaned and washed pork intestines. The movement of the blood-red mass is accompanied by salty jokes in the spirit of Rabelais. Aesthetic completion of the holiday can be considered a generous feast in the village-
in the courtyard, twined with vines. The celebration of the triumph of life over death lays a solid Foundation not for a vegetarian lifestyle.